Sodium intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

TitleSodium intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsLeyvraz, M, Taffé, P, Chatelan, A, Paradis, G, Tabin, R, Bovet, P, Bochud, M, Chiolero, A
JournalBMJ Open
Date Published2016

INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In adults, high sodium intake is associated with elevated blood pressure. In children, experimental studies have shown that reducing sodium intake can reduce blood pressure. However, their external validity is limited, notably because the sodium reduction was substantial and not applicable in a real-life setting. Observational studies, on the other hand, allow assess the association between blood pressure and sodium intake across usual levels of consumption. There is also evidence that the association differs between subgroups of children according to age and body weight. Our objective is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental and observational studies on the association between sodium intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents and to assess whether the association differs according to age and body weight.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL databases will be conducted and supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies and unpublished studies. Experimental and observational studies involving children or adolescents between 0 and 18 years of age will be included. The exposure will be dietary sodium intake, estimated using different methods including urinary sodium excretion. The outcomes will be systolic and diastolic blood pressure, elevated blood pressure and hypertension. If appropriate, meta-analyses will be performed by pooling data across all studies together and separately for experimental and observational studies. Subgroup meta-analyses by age and body weight will be also conducted. Moreover, separate meta-analyses for different sodium intake levels will be conducted to investigate the dose-response relationship.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. A report will be prepared for national authorities and other stakeholders in the domains of nutrition, public health, and child health in Switzerland.


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Alternate JournalBMJ Open
Citation Key / SERVAL ID7109
Peer reviewRefereed
PubMed ID27655262


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