Growth and Intellectual Abilities of Six-Year-Old Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

TitleGrowth and Intellectual Abilities of Six-Year-Old Children with Congenital Heart Disease.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsHeye, KNadine, Rousson, V, Knirsch, W, Beck, I, Liamlahi, R, Bernet, V, Dave, H, Latal, B
Corporate AuthorsHeart and Brain Research Group
JournalThe Journal of pediatrics
Date Published01/2019
KeywordsCardiopulmonary Bypass/methods, Child, Child Development, Cohort Studies, Congenital/complications, Congenital/surgery, Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology, Developmental Disabilities/etiology, Female, growth trajectories, head growth, Heart Defects, Humans, Infant, Intellectual Disability/epidemiology, Intellectual Disability/etiology, Male, neurodevelopmental outcome, Preschool, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors

OBJECTIVE: To determine growth and its relationship to IQ in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery within the first year of life.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective single-center cohort study on 143 children (91 males) with different types of CHD (29 univentricular). Children with recognized genetic disorders were excluded. Growth (weight, height, and head circumference [HC]) was assessed at birth, before surgery, and at 1, 4, and 6 years and compared with Swiss growth charts. IQ was assessed at 6 years using standardized tests. Univariate and multivariable linear regressions were performed to determine predictors of HC and IQ at 6 years.

RESULTS: HC at birth was in the low average range (33rd percentile, P = .03), and weight (49th percentile, P = .23) and length (47th percentile, P = .06) were normal. All growth measures declined until the first surgery, with a catch-up growth until 6 years for height (44th percentile, P = .07) but not for weight (39th percentile, P = .003) or for HC (23rd percentile, P < .001). Children undergoing univentricular palliation showed poorer height growth than other types of CHD (P = .01). Median IQ at 6 years was 95 (range 50-135). Lower IQ at 6 years was independently predicted by lower HC at birth, lower socioeconomic status, older age at first bypass surgery, and longer length of intensive care unit stay.

CONCLUSIONS: Smaller HC at birth and postnatal factors are predictive of impaired intellectual abilities at school age. Early identification should alert clinicians to provide early childhood interventions to optimize developmental potential.

Alternate URL

First publication date (online)




Alternate JournalJ. Pediatr.
Citation Key / SERVAL ID9165
Peer reviewRefereed
PubMed ID30340933


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