Neuromotor development in children. Part 4: new norms from 3 to 18 years.

TitreNeuromotor development in children. Part 4: new norms from 3 to 18 years.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsKakebeeke, TH, Knaier, E, Chaouch, A, Caflisch, J, Rousson, V, Largo, RH, Jenni, OG
JournalDevelopmental medicine and child neurology
Date Published08/2018
Mots-clésAdolescent, Adolescent Development/physiology, Child, Child Development/physiology, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Male, Motor Activity/physiology, Motor Skills/physiology, Neuropsychological Tests, Postural Balance/physiology, Preschool, Reference Values, Reproducibility of Result

AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to provide normative data for motor proficiency (motor performance and contralateral associated movements [CAMs]) in typically developing children between 3 years and 18 years of age using an updated version of the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA-2).

METHOD: Six-hundred and sixteen typically developing children between 3 years and 18 years of age were enrolled from day-care centres, kindergartens, and schools, and were tested using the ZNA-2 with improved items of the original battery. Motor proficiency was assessed on five components (fine motor tasks, pure motor tasks, static balance, dynamic balance, and CAMs) as a function of age and sex to determine centile curves for each task. Intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reliabilities were evaluated.

RESULTS: Most ZNA-2 tasks featured a marked developmental trend and substantial interindividual variability. Test-retest reliability was generally high (e.g. static balance 0.67; CAMs 0.81; and total scores 0.84).

INTERPRETATION: The ZNA-2 is a reliable and updated test instrument to measure motor proficiency in children from 3 to 18 years with improved properties for assessing motor performance. It allows continuous measurement without changing items for the entire age range; this feature of the ZNA-2 is unique and makes the instrument suitable for clinical purposes. The reduction of CAMs scoring simplifies the clinical procedure and increases its reliability.

WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment, Second Edition (ZNA-2) provides new norms for motor proficiency in children between 3 years and 18 years. High reliabilities suggest that the revised test battery is a useful tool for assessing neuromotor development. Integration of a 'not able to perform' category makes the ZNA-2 suitable for clinical purposes.

Alternate URL

First publication date (online)




Alternate JournalDev Med Child Neurol
Citation Key / SERVAL ID8867
Peer reviewRefereed
PubMed ID29732550


Institut universitaire de médecine sociale et préventive
Route de la Corniche 10, 1010 Lausanne - Switzerland
+41 21 314 72 72 |

Go to top